Språkkurser/Latin/Substantiv/Ablativ

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Substantiv ~ Adjektiv ~ Räkneord ~ Pronomen ~ Prepositioner ~ Verb


Ablativ ~ Ackusativ ~ Genitiv och Dativ ~ Nominativ

Ablativ[redigera]

Ablativ är det kasus som huvudsakligen svarar på frågorna varifrån? (ursprunglig ablativ) med vad? (instrumental ablativ) var? (platsens ablativ).

The ablative is the Modal case (dead link) (or to define it more clearly the case of Circumstances which modify the predication adverbially). Besides its proper ablative functions (taken in Greek by the Genitive), it comprises those of the Primitive Instrumental (partly taken in Greek by the Dative) and most functions of the Locative Case.

Its uses may be conveniently taken in the following order:

1. Instrumental ablative: comprising Cause; Instrument; Agent; Price; Matter 2. Locative Ablative: comprising Respect; Difference; Manner; Condition; Quality; Time When; Place Where and by Which. 3. Ablative Proper: comprising Place Whence; Separation; Origin; Thing Compared.

The different uses of the ablative will be dealt progressively. For a summary of all forms of the ablative, please consult the Appendix.

Grammatik 5: Kraften hos kasuset ablativ[redigera]

Ablative generally indicates position in time and/or space (i.e. when and where). It can also indicate the idea of ways of getting to a location, abstractly or concretely.


Exempel 1--för lite variation[redigera]

Jag ska ankomma den 5:e timmen.

'at the 5th hour' is indicating position of time. 'the 5th hour' is extraneous. You could say 'I will arrive' as its own clause (it stands by itself). The ablative tells us that the concept to which the ablative case refers (the 5th hour) is outside, and different from the (accusative) direct object or the (nominative) subject.

Exempel 2[redigera]

Jag är hemma.

'hemma' beskriver positionen av 'jag' vilket är i Ablativ.

Latin has its own way of handling prepositions depending on the nouns and their cases in the sentence, including the ever versatile 'in', which can take many different meanings depending upon the case of the object.

Här kommer några prepositioner som styr Ablativ:

LatinSvenska
in*i, på
abav (but seperate from?) —may be inaccurate, originally from (before coming away from that place)
  • In, when preceeding an ablative noun denotes the meaning of 'in' or 'on', while preceeding an accusative noun, denotes the meaning of 'into'.

A legal metaphor: To accuse a noun is to get into a long process, and stay in the same place. (with the direct object.) If you use the ablative,you are pouncing on them and prepositioning them in a position of guilt.

Example 3[redigera]

Servus est ad agris The servant is by the fields.

Notes: Ager must take an ablative suffix to match the preceeding preposition, whatever it may be. (Ager and campus are both nouns that today we translate as 'field'. Agris is the ablative plural.)

Updated Oct. 6 2004 after accuracy was confirmed.

Grammar Part 6: 3rd, 4th, and 5th Declension Nouns[redigera]

We are now to complete the table of nouns with the 3rd, 4th, and 5th declensions. These declensions are more difficult to work with as These declensions have nominative and accussative plurals as the same, aswell as the dative and ablative plurals the same. To distinguish the cases, you must use a very simple key: context. Context will tell you the meaning.

3rd Declension Masculine or Feminine (each word has a set gender): regis[redigera]

3rd declension nouns (like the 2nd declension noun 'ager') have two stems: The nominative and vocative singular stem and the stem used for all other cases. Both stems have to be memorised for each noun. Feminine and masculine forms are indistinguishable.

3rd DeclensionSingular
nominativerex
genitivereg-is
accusativereg-em
dativereg-i
ablativereg-e
3rd DeclensionPlural
nominativereg-es
accusativereg-es
genitivereg-um
dativereg-ibus
ablativereg-ibus

3rd Declension Neuter: mare[redigera]

3rd Declension NeuterSingular
nominative*mare
genitivemar-is
accusativemare
dativemar-i
ablativemar-i
3rd DeclensionPlural
nominativemar-ia
genitivemar-ium
accusativemar-ia
dativemar-ibus
ablativemar-ibus

4th Declension Masculine/Feminine (each word has a set gender) gradus[redigera]

4th DeclensionSingular
nominativegrad-us
genitivegrad-us
accusativegrad-um
dativegrad-ui
ablativegrad-u
4th DeclensionPlural
nominativegrad-us
genitivegrad-uum
accusativegrad-us
dativegrad-ibus
ablativegrad-ibus

4th Declension Neuter: cornu[redigera]

4th Declension NeuterSingular
nominativecorn-u
vocativecorn-u
accusativecorn-u
genitivecorn-us
dativecorn-ui
ablativecorn-u
1st DeclensionPlural
nominativecorn-a
accusativecorn-a
genitivecorn-uum
dativecorn-ibus
ablativecorn-ibus

5th Declension Masculine/Feminine (each word has a set gender): res[redigera]

5th Declension Feminine/MasculineSingular
nominativer-es
vocativer-es
accusativer-em
genitiver-ei
dativer-ei
ablativer-e
5th Declension Masculine/FemininePlural
nominativer-es
accusativer-es
genitiver-erum
dativer-ebus
ablativer-ebus

Exercises[redigera]

Exercise 1[redigera]

Translate the following:

Vocabulary:

ambulo, I walk; vocat, (nominative) calls; delecto, I want; occidere, to kill; mortuit, (nominative) died.

Hodie, ad casam mei amici ambulo. Meus amicus ipse 'Marcus' vocat . Delecto occidere eum. Ita, mortuit.

Excercise 2[redigera]

Translate the following:

Vocabulary:

Habeo, I have.

Eheu! Mus! Mus! Ediens meum panem! Nunc nihil habeo. O miserum me!